2 discussion topics

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Please provide a full paragraph OR MORE THAN ONE PARAGRAPH (6-10 complete sentences per paragraph), and include an APA formatted reference list on bottom of posting (entitled References). 

1. Masturbation (Or you can reword the following text to work for you)

I am skeptical about many of Freud’s theories, but he seems to be one of the first proponents of the idea that childhood masturbation is a part of normal development (Crooks et al., 2017). Of course, his views on adult masturbation more closely reflected the beliefs of the religious and medical elite of his time that adults who masturbate are somehow delayed or disordered. Researchers now recognize that masturbation is common enough to be considered a normal part of human development across the lifespan.

It is interesting that most of the research, including the data presented in our text, reflects the masturbation behaviors of pubescent individuals. Crooks et al. (2017) break the data down by age group (e.g., 14-17, 18-24, and 25-39 years old) and briefly mention adults over 70. They also do not provide data on routine or regular masturbation. They look only at the previous month and the lifetime prevalence. A thorough review of the data, especially in a psychology course, should include masturbatory behaviors of pre-pubescent children and certainly should not ignore an entire half of the U.S. population (i.e., those between 40 and 70).

Fortunately, there are researchers studying these age groups, and the results are enlightening. Data indicate that around 67% of girls and 33% of boys (age 6 and younger) masturbate (Unal, 2000, as cited in Murat & Ucar, 2022). Compare this to 51% of boys and 25% of girls ages 14-17 (Crooks et al., 2017). In fact, studies show that childhood masturbation is highest at age 4 and begins to slowly decline after age 5 as children become familiar with societal and/or religious restrictions (Murat & Ucar, 2022). However, in many children, the behavior never fades completely because it is serving a physiological function. One of the most common reasons for masturbation across all age groups is sleep induction via anxiety reduction or relaxation (Crooks et al., 2017; Murat & Ucar, 2022).

I could not find any longitudinal studies examining masturbatory behaviors across the lifespan. We have data on children, adolescents, adults, middle age, and older adults, but we don’t have any large studies that follow children who routinely masturbate throughout their lives to see what the patterns look like over many decades and life stages. I am also curious about the impact of traumatic or tragic life events on masturbation. I think most people would agree that during major life upheavals or crises, sexual interest takes a backseat to immediate concerns. However, for people who masturbate for anxiety relief purposes rather than sexual release, would masturbation rates increase during stressful times even when libido decreases?


Crooks, R., Baur, K., & Widman. L. (2017). Our Sexuality (14th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Murat, D., & Ucar, H. M. (2022). Childhood masturbation: Sleep habits of children, maternal psychopathology, and other risk factors—A controlled study. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 60(1), 38-47. https://doi-org.tamuct.idm.oclc.org/10.3928/02793695-20210623-02 (Links to an external site.)


Please use

“Crooks, R., Baur, K., & Widman. L. (2017). Our Sexuality (14th ed.). Cengage Learning.” for refrence

Second topic is : gay rights movement but again you can copy and paste this in your own words

The Gay Rights Movement started long ago in Germany long before the start of WWII. Germany had the first organization that fought for gay rights but sadly, it ended with the start of WWII resulting in many gay men being sent to death camps around the area. After WWII the United States, in the 1950s, the next anti-discrimination group was founded which helped to educate about homosexuality and try to eliminate laws against it. In 1969 police raided a gay bar called the Stonewall where the individuals inside fought back until the next day resulting in start of the Gay Pride parade to commemorate the patrons (Crooks, R. et. al, 2021). After is event several new foundations were created to fight for equal rights for the homosexual community as well as decriminalization of private sexual behavior of consenting adults. Some of these foundations include;  Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD), Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays  (PFLAG), and Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network (GLSEN) (Crooks, R. et. al, 2021). Sodomy is defined as any anal or oral intercourse between two adults of any sexual orientation.

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