please respond to meghan with 200 words
Topic 1: Things value in life.
The ten things I value in life are: God, Family, Church, Friends, Fair treatment for all, Character of a person, My privacy, Opportunities for education, Personal Integrity, and Helping others.
Societal perceptions is how society perceives people’s actions or motives. The society that you live in establishes what is considered to be normal or of a benefit to society. Our laws are made so citizens of the community will abide by the standards that are set into place. Our families have a set of values that has been passed down through generations that the family follows. Our churches also teach values to their congregation from the Bible such as the ten commandments and Biblical laws. When we find a job the employer has values for his business that the employees are to follow. Learning to respect the values of others is something everyone needs to learn Freud ( 1999) discussed that society perception is based upon what is considered normal at the time. Our values are affected by how society deals with society’s deviations (as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 422). Personal perceptions are how a person is influenced by others concerning how they choose to react in situations. A person grows and develops relationships that can have a positive or negative influence on their perceptions of right and wrong. Berns wrote “ Factors such as age, experience, cognitive development, and moral reasoning affect values” ( 2016, p. 422). As people mature they begin to establish their own personal values that may change with experiences within the family one is born in, the community you live in, the friends you have, and life experiences. Values are taught and developed and each person must make decisions on what values are important to them. According to Berns (2016) stated “ Values clarification- the process of discovering what is personally worth while or desirable in life “ ( p. 424).
Topic 2- Influences.
Children often have many issues with self-esteem. Children learn by doing and observation, and look for acceptance within their environment. Children learn about acceptance and what other’s think or feel about them. They also learn about what their peers or adults in their lives think and in turn use those observations as their own. Many agents affect children’s attitudes towards others. Family values, morals, and the socioeconomic status of the community the family lives in gives insight to the child’s perception of others. The child’s peers influence how a child reacts to others. Media also builds a child’s perception of what is expected when interacting with others. Comstock & Scharrer ( 2007) Kaiser Family Foundation (2010), Richert, Roff & Smith ( 2011)discussed “ The mass media must be considered socializing agents, not only because of their prevalence, but also because they reveal many aspects of the society and elicit cognitive processes in children that cultivate their understanding of the real world “ ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 55). All these agents combined develop the child’s attitude towards others.
Many agents affect a child’s development of their self -esteem. The child’s parenting practices had a great effect on the child’s self-esteem. The self-esteem that the child builds from their home life affects their success in school. Harter ( 2006, 2012) discussed “ It has been found that students with high self-esteem are more likely to be successful in school and achieve more than children with low self-esteem “ (as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 443& 444). A child’s peers are also significant in building self-esteem. Children tend to criticize one another and poke fun at each other. The mass media also is a factor in the development of a child’s self-esteem. Movies, videos, and advertising give children false stereotypes of body image. Children often feel they must live up to these unrealistic stereotypes and can cause them to have lower self-esteem. The community can also affect self-esteem in regards to gender. Women are often paid less than a,man and have a harder time in career advancement.
Topic 3- Prejudice.
Prejudice comes in many forms. Individuals form prejudice usually in their early years of growing. Brown & Bigler ( 2005) Van Ausdale & Feagin (2201) discussed that a child’s attitude about cultural groups develops in three phases. First, at the age of 2 ½ to 3 years they become aware of cultural differences. Second, around age 4 the child becomes aware of culturally related words and concepts. Third, at about age of 7 the child develops attitudes regarding cultural groups” ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 425). the child’s attitude on prejudice is influenced by family, peers, media, school, and community they live in. Attitudes regarding prejudice can be redirected and changed. Katz & zalk (1979) discussed that they used three techniques to combat culturally biased attitudes among 2nd and 5th grade children. Increased positive intercultural contact was used to provided the children a opportunity to work together and build relationships. Vicarious intercultural contact using cultural stories for children to relate to. Perceptual differentiation is when children were shown slides on people from other cultures that where dressed in clothes of their culture. Children are ask to identify differences in each slide. These exercises lowered the children’s prejudice ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 431). These experiences proved that attitudes could be changed for the positive. People need to be looked upon as as individual and not as a race, ethnic group, or with any other cause of prejudice.
Berns, Roberta M. Child, Family, School, Community. 10th ed., Cengage Learning, Inc, 2016.